Example Essay on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior problem this is certainly described as hyperactivity, inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity and, until recently, was diagnosed primarily in kids. It was first defined as Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood in 1957 and was often called hyperactivity or syndrome that is hyperactive it was renamed ADHD in 1987. The renaming also represented a shift in focus from hyperactive behavior into the inattention as a characteristic that is major of disorder.
In the usa the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates 7 percent of school-age (6-10) children have ADHD, with a ratio of 3 to 1 boys to girls. White children tend to have higher rates of ADHD diagnosis than minority children. In the past few years the definition of ADHD has broadened. Now, in addition to school-age children, ADHD is diagnosed in preschool children, adolescents, and adults, which plays a custom writing role in the rising prevalence.
The most frequent medical treatment for ADHD is with psychoactive medications, especially ethyl-phenidate (Ritalin) along with other stimulant medications (Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta). Treatment rates have increased enormously in the past few years; in 2004 the Department of Health and Human Services estimated 5 million children ages 5 to 17 were treated for ADHD in 2000-02, up from 2.6 million in 1994. The diagnosis and treatment of ADHD is significantly higher in the United States compared to other countries, but evidence implies that considering that the 1990s it's been rising in other countries as well, for example, in the United Kingdom.
The causes of ADHD are not well understood, although various theories have been offered, including dietary, genetic, psychological, and social ones. In past times 2 decades, medical researchers have reported genetic susceptibilities to ADHD and found variations in brain imaging results from individuals with ADHD and folks without ADHD. Although bio-medical theories of ADHD predominate, what causes ADHD are nevertheless largely unknown. Some contend that even though you can find biological differences between children with ADHD as well as other children, what is observed could be a reflection of differences in temperament rather than a specific disorder.
ADHD and its treatment have already been controversial at the very least since the 1970s.
Critics have expressed anxiety about the drugging of schoolchildren, contending that ADHD is merely a label for childhood behavior that is deviant. Others grant that some children could have a disorder that is neurological but maintain that there is an overdiagnosis of ADHD. Every once in awhile some educators and parents have raised concerns about negative effects from long-term use of stimulant medications. Child psychiatrists see ADHD as the most childhood that is common disorder and consider psychoactive medication treatment as well established and safe. Parent and consumer groups, such as for instance CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), have a tendency to offer the perspective that is medical of.
Considering that the 1990s there is a rise that is significant the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. Whereas childhood ADHD is usually school or parent identified, adult ADHD appears to be largely self-identified. Some researchers have noted that lots of apparently successful adults seek an ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment as a consequence of learning about the disorder from professionals, the media, or others, after which seeing their very own life problems reflected into the description of ADHD (e.g., disorganized life, inability to sustain attention, moving from job to job). Adult ADHD remains controversial, however. Many psychiatrists have embraced adult ADHD as a significant social problem, with claims of tens of billions of dollars in lost productivity and household income as a result of disorder, whereas critics have suggested it really is “the medicalization of underperformance.”
Sociologists view ADHD as a classic case associated with the medicalization of deviant behavior, defining a previously nonmedical problem as a medical one in addition to remedy for ADHD as a kind of medical control that is social.
Whereas some have pointed out that when a challenge becomes medicalized it really is less stigmatized, because its origin sometimes appears as physiological or biomedical rather than as linked to volitional behavior, others point out the social consequences of medicalizing children’s behavior problems. Some have suggested that medicalizing behavior that is deviant ADHD individualizes complex social problems and allows for powerful types of medical social control (medications) to be used. Secondary gain, accruing social advantages from a diagnosis that is medical is also an issue with ADHD. There are reports of adolescents seeking an ADHD diagnosis to get learning disability status in order to acquire certain benefits, such as for example untimed tests or alternative assignments. From a sociological view, this is of ADHD is a prime illustration of diagnostic expansion, the widening definition of a recognized diagnosis. For some, ADHD is now deemed a disorder that is lifelong with an expanding age range for diagnosis (from preschool to adult) and a lowered threshold for psychoactive medication treatment. Though it can be done that the behaviors characteristic of ADHD are increasing because of some kind of social cause, it really is much more likely that an ever-increasing amount of people are now being identified, labeled, and treated as having ADHD.